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In the world of nutrition and health, the conventional wisdom that has prevailed for decades is the idea that saturated fat and dietary cholesterol are major culprits behind obesity, cardiovascular disease, and a host of other health issues. This belief has led to the widespread promotion of low-fat diets, skim milk, cholesterol-lowering products, and a general fear of fat in our diets. But how did we come to adopt these ideas, and are they based on solid scientific evidence? The story begins with one man, Ancel Keys, and his influential yet controversial theories.

The Ancel Keys Story

Ancel Keys was an American physiologist and researcher who is often credited with formulating the “Diet-Heart Hypothesis” and the “Lipid Hypothesis” in the mid-20th century. These hypotheses proposed that a diet high in saturated fat and cholesterol leads to an increased risk of heart disease and other health problems. Keys gained recognition for his research by analyzing data from a study that examined heart disease rates in seven different countries. His analysis seemed to show a clear correlation between higher fat consumption and higher rates of heart attacks.

Keys’ findings were groundbreaking and seemed to make perfect sense: eat more fat, get fat, raise your cholesterol levels, clog your arteries, and increase your risk of a heart attack. These ideas gained widespread acceptance and were endorsed by prominent health organizations such as the USDA, the American Medical Association, the American Diabetes Association, and the American Heart Association. The anti-fat and anti-cholesterol movement was officially launched.

The Missing Data

However, there was a significant oversight in Keys’ research that went largely unnoticed at the time. While he based his conclusions on data from seven countries, there were, in fact, data available from 22 countries. When the additional data were considered, the neat correlation between fat consumption and heart attacks disappeared. In other words, Keys’ hypothesis was not supported by a comprehensive analysis of all available data.

Dr. George Mann, a researcher on the Framingham study, which aimed to support the cholesterol theory, boldly stated, “Dietary fat is not the determinant of either high cholesterol or coronary heart disease.” He went further, calling the diet-heart hypothesis “the greatest scam ever perpetrated on the American public.”

The Evolutionary Perspective

Looking at human history and evolution, it becomes clear that the idea of removing fat from our diets for health reasons is somewhat perplexing. Our brains, which played a crucial role in our evolution, are energy-hungry organs, consuming 25% of our metabolic budget. To adapt to the high energy cost of a large brain, our digestive systems had to shrink, making them less efficient at extracting energy from fibrous plant foods. This shift in our dietary needs favored nutrient-dense, energy-dense foods, such as animal fat.

From an evolutionary perspective, fat was a valuable macronutrient that our ancestors would have consumed as much as their environment allowed. Evidence even suggests that early humans might have prioritized consuming animal fat before other parts of an animal.

The Reality of Cholesterol

Contrary to popular belief, cholesterol is an essential substance in our bodies. It is vital for forming cell membranes, creating brain cells, and producing important hormones like estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. The notion that cholesterol should be drastically reduced in our diets is not only unfounded but also potentially harmful.

Inflammation, Not Cholesterol, Is the Culprit

The prevailing belief that cholesterol buildup in arterial walls causes heart disease is misleading. The actual problem begins with inflammation and damage to the arterial walls. Cholesterol is sent by the body to repair this damage, much like a natural response to healing a wound. Blaming cholesterol for heart disease is akin to blaming a firefighter for a fire instead of addressing the underlying causes of the fire.

The Role of Sugar

While the focus has been on reducing fat and cholesterol, the true dietary villain, sugar, has often been overlooked. British physiologist John Yudkin was warning about the dangers of sugar as far back as 1957 in his book “Pure, White and Deadly: The Problem of Sugar.” Yet, in 1977, the US government introduced guidelines promoting low-fat diets, inadvertently fueling the obesity epidemic.

The number of hospitalizations for heart failure increased, and heart disease remains the leading cause of death globally. The focus on reducing fat while increasing sugar and processed carbohydrates in our diets has had adverse effects on our health.


The fear of fat and cholesterol, largely rooted in Ancel Keys’ research, has influenced dietary recommendations for decades. However, the scientific foundation of these recommendations is shaky at best. Cholesterol is essential for our health, and fat is a natural part of our evolutionary diet.

Instead of demonizing fat and cholesterol, it is essential to consider factors such as inflammation, triglyceride levels, and the quality of the foods we consume. It’s time to shift our focus away from processed, sugary foods and embrace a more balanced and evidence-based approach to nutritionβ€”one that aligns with our evolutionary history and current understanding of health.


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