A black hole is a region in space where the gravitational pull is so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape from it. This phenomenon is a consequence of the general theory of relativity, which is a fundamental theory in physics formulated by Albert Einstein.
Black holes are formed when massive stars undergo gravitational collapse at the end of their life cycles. The core of the star, which is left behind after a supernova explosion, can collapse under its own gravity if it is massive enough. As the core collapses, it becomes denser and denser, eventually reaching a point where the gravitational forces are so intense that they create a singularity at the center. The singularity is a point of infinite density, where the laws of physics as we currently understand them break down.
Around the singularity, there is a boundary called the event horizon. This is the point of no return for anything that gets too close to the black hole. Once an object crosses the event horizon, it is trapped within the black hole’s gravitational pull and cannot escape.
Black holes come in different sizes, with stellar-mass black holes formed from the remnants of massive stars and supermassive black holes found at the centers of galaxies, which can have masses equivalent to millions or billions of times that of our Sun. The study of black holes has been a fascinating area of research in astrophysics, and they continue to be a subject of great interest due to their extreme properties and their role in shaping the structure of the universe.